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The Protestant Reformation begins on 31st October 1517 in Wittenberg (modern day Saxony-Anhalt in eastern Germany) when Martin Luther nails his "Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences" to the door of Castle Church (officially known as All Saints Church), in Wittenberg. The Reformation leads to a religious schism in Europe - broadly speaking northern Europe becomes Protestant while southern Europe remains Catholic. In the Holy Roman Empire, the ruling Habsburgs remain fiercely Catholic, but individual territories convert to...
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The Protestant Reformation of 1517 heralds a long period of religious tension between the Catholic establishment of the Holy Roman Empire on one side, and the newly converted Protestant states on the other. A significant political undercurrent is the challenge the Protestant states present to the authority of the ruling Catholic Habsburg dynasty. In 1531 in Switzerland (nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire but effectively autonomous and free from Empire influence following victory in the Swabian War of 1499), the Second Battle of Kappel is ...
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The Augsburg Interim that ended the Schmalkaldic War a few years previously did nothing to appease the Protetsants, and in 1552 Protestant German forces in Saxony, supported by the Catholic French King Henry II, rebel against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. A Protestant victory results in the temporary Peace of Passau, granting the Protestants religious freedom until a more permanent treaty is agreed. That treaty comes in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg, which establishes Protestantism as an official religion alongside Catholicism in...
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