1535 - House of Baden Divided Once More
In 1515 Christopher I, Margrave of Baden, divided his territories amongst three of his sons, Philip, Bernhard, and Ernest, who administered the Margraviate on his behalf. Although Philip I inherited the Margraviate of Baden on the death of his father in 1527, his brothers resisted any attempts to consolidate rule back into his hands.
In 1533 Philip I died (buried, as is usual for the Margraves of Baden at that time, in the Collegiate Church in Baden-Baden - pictured). The Margraviate of Baden is split between his two brothers, Ernest and Bernhard. Ernest becomes Ernest I, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, establishing the Ernestine line that eventually produces the Grand Dukes of Baden in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Bernhard becomes Bernhard III, Margrave of Baden-Baden. Some sources date the formal division of the Margraviate of Baden to Philip's death in 1533, others to 1535.
The House of Baden-Durlach is initally based in Pforzheim (and is in fact named Baden-Pforzheim), but is moved by Charles II, second Margrave of Baden-Durlach, to Durlach (today a suburb of the city of Karlsruhe). The Baden-Durlach territories comprised of numerous separate parcels of land: around Karlsruhe and Pforzheim; around Emmendingen (including Hochberg Castle); an area west of Freiburg; the area around Badenweiler, centred on Badenweiler Castle; the former Margraviate of Hachberg-Sausenberg, centred on Sausenberg Castle near modern day Kandern; and the area around Rötteln Castle, near modern day city of Lörrach near the Swiss border at Basel.
The House of Baden-Baden is based at the traditional family seat of Hohenbaden Castle, near the modern day city of Baden-Baden. The Baden-Baden territories also comprised numerous separate parcels of land: the area around Baden-Baden; the area around the Lahr, to the south of Baden-Baden; areas in the modern day German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, including Gräfenstein and Sponheim; and an area around Rodemachern, the future Margraviate of Baden-Rodemachern, now a French commune near the border with Luxembourg.
The two houses of Baden will eventually be reunited as the Margraviate of Baden once more on the death of the Bernhardine Augustus George, last Margrave of Baden-Baden, on 21st October 1771.
Grave of Philip I, Collegiate Church, Baden-Baden: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Grab_Philipp_I.JPG
Margraviate of Baden-Durlach Map: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Markgrafschaft_Baden-Durlach.png
Margraviate of Baden-Baden Map: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Markgrafschaft_Baden-Baden.png